Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq

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“Among those most dedicated to me in his companionship and property is Abū Bakr”
The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)(i)

“If I were to take a personal friend [other than Allah], I would take Ibn Abī Quḥāfah”
The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)(ii)

“You are my companion at the Pool and my companion in the Cave”
The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)(iii)

“It is impermissible for a people among whom is Abū Bakr, to be led by any other”
The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)(iv)

“The faith of Abū Bakr outweighs the faith of the entire Ummah
ʿUmar ibn Al-Khaṭṭāb (may Allah be pleased with him)(v)

“The best of people after the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم is Abū Bakr”
ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib (may Allah ennoble his face)(vi)

Abu Bakr written in Arabic calligraphy.

ABŪ BAKR AL-ṢIDDĪQ, ʿATĪQ IBN ABĪ QUḤĀFAH, ʿABD ALLĀH IBN ʿUTHMĀN IBN ʿĀMIR IBN ʿAMR IBN KʿAB IBN SʿAD AL-TAYMĪ AL-QURĀSHĪ (may Allah be pleased with him) was the first adult male convert to Islam. He was the personal friend, advisor, and closest Companion (as confirmed by the Mighty Qur’an(vii)) of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and the first ‘Rightly-Guided’ Caliph of Islam. He was also one of those Companions given glad tidings of Paradise by the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). Furthermore, the Chosen One صلى الله عليه وسلم (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) declared him the first of the Muslim community to enter Paradise(viii). He صلى الله عليه وسلم (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) conferred upon him the titles ‘the confirmer of truth’ (Al-Ṣiddīq)(ix) and ‘the freedman of Allah from the Fire’ (ʿAtīq Allāh min Al-Nār)(x).

Abū Bakr was born in Makkah into the Taym clan of the Quraysh tribe in the pre-Islamic era. He was one or two years younger than the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). Prior to the beginning of revelation, he was well respected throughout Makkah due to his knowledge, wisdom and manners, and he was a friend of the Blessed Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). After his early conversion to Islam, he invited a number of other early converts to the religion. These included his wife Umm Rūmān, his children ʿAbd Allāh and Asmā’, and his friend ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān (may Allah be pleased with them).

Abū Bakr spent much of his wealth on freeing slaves in Makkah, including the Abyssinian Bilāl ibn Rabaḥ (may Allah be pleased with him)(xi), and helping the Hāshimite clan during their boycott by Quraysh. By the end of the Qurayshite boycott, he was no longer a wealthy man and had lost his influence amongst the non-Muslim leaders of Makkah. He was attacked and persecuted by the people of Makkah and set out to emigrate to Abyssinia after gaining permission from the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). However, whilst on his way to the Red Sea, he was stopped by Ibn Ad-Dughunnah, who was the non-Muslim leader of a tribe allied to Quraysh, and he persuaded Abū Bakr to return to Makkah under his protection.

The route taken by the Prophet Muhammad on his ‘Hijra’ from Makkah to Madinah in 622 CE.
The route taken by the Messenger & Abū Bakr on the Hijra

On hearing about the Night Journey and Ascension of the Chosen Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), Abū Bakr was quick to publicly declare his trust in what the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) had said about that event.(xii) It was at this point that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) conferred upon him the title ‘Al-Ṣiddīq’.(xiii). He was then chosen by the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) to be his companion during the emigration to Yathrib,(xiv) and he was with the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) in the Cave of Mount Thawr(xv).

In Madīnah, Abū Bakr gave his daughter ʿĀ’isha (may Allah be pleased with her) in marriage to the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and was by the side of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) during all his صلى الله عليه وسلم (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) battles. He was also chosen by the Blessed Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) to lead the Hajj pilgrimage following the conquest of Makkah(xvi), and to lead the prayers in the Prophet’s Mosque during the final illness of the Chosen One صلى الله عليه وسلم (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)(xvii).

Map showing the extent of the Muslim Empire during the the earliest period of Islam.
The extent of the empire during Abū Bakr's caliphate

Following the passing of the Prophet of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), Abū Bakr was declared the Caliph in a meeting of eminent Emigrants and Helpers.(xviii) He suggested the final burial place of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)(xix), fought and suppressed apostate tribes(xx) and false prophets, began the conquests of Syria and Iraq from the Byzantine and Persian empires, and compiled the Qur’an into one manuscript(xxi). He ruled for two years and three months.

The tombstones of the Prophet, and the Rightly Guided Caliphs and Companions Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq and Umar ibn Al-Khattab in the Prophet's Mosque, Madinah
The tombstone of Abū Bakr (centre right) in the Prophet's Mosque, Madinah

Abū Bakr was fair-skinned with a thin frame and sparse beard. He had sunken eyes and a protruding forehead.(xxii) He was a master of genealogy of the Quraysh tribe and of dream interpretation. He narrated one hundred and forty-two Prophetic traditions. Those who narrated from him included his daughter ʿĀ’isha, ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, Anas ibn Mālik, Ibn ʿAbbās, ʿUmar ibn Al-Khaṭṭāb, and ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān (may Allah be pleased with them all). He died aged sixty-three years old in 13 AH (634 CE) after an illness. He was buried next to the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) in Madīnah.


His Sayings

“Please Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم by doing good to his family.”(xxiii)

“Whoever fights his ego for Allah’s sake, Allah will protect Him against what He hates.”


His Family: Family Tree
Related Biographies:
Umar ibn Al-Khattab
Zayd ibn Thabit
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